International Resources

Guidance Notes

Guideline to Implementing a Travel Risk Management System Based on PAS 3001:2016

PAS 3001:2016 Travelling for work - Responsibilities of an organisation for health, safety and security - provides guidance to help organisations protect their mobile workforce and themselves. PAS 3001 gives recommendations on organisational responsibility in respect of the health, safety and security of individuals travelling for work. It provides best practice approaches to developing, implementing and evaluating the necessary content for the Travel Risk Management System. This guide explains how Travel Risk Managers can implement an adaptive Travel Risk Management System into their organisation. It presents an exemplary Travel Risk Management System and explains how to transcript the standard into strategical, tactical and operational measures.

(German) Author: Daniel Weitemeyer. Published by TeMedia, Bonn.

International Minimum Requirements for Health Protection in the Workplace

(English) Published by World Health Organisation (WHO)

New Voluntary Guidelines on the Duty of Care to Seconded Civilian Personnel

Author:  Maarten Merkelbach.  Published by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, the UK Government's Stabilisation Unit (SU)  and Centre for International Peace Operations (ZIF) of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. Report on the second international forum on Duty of Care. 

The Responsibility of Duty of Care for People Travelling Away From Home

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. Guidance for business travellers.

Obligations and Rights of Passengers and Air Companies

(English) Published by the IATA. Provides information on the requirements of airlines for the health and safety of passengers. 

Safety Without Borders: Keeping Your Staff Healthy and Safe Abroad

(English) Published by IOSH. This guide helps companies manage the health, safety and welfare issues their staff may face when posted abroad or whilst travelling on business trips.

Legislative Notes

Are you Part of the Global Workforce?

(English) Published by LexisNexis. An examination of the Duty of Care to business travellers and international assignees under the ILO's occupational health and safety convention and as emerging international customary law.

Can you Get Sued?

(English) Published by Kemp and Merkelbach.  Defines the legal liabilities that international humanitarian aid organisations have towards their staff.

Employees in Harm’s Way: Practical Considerations for the Multinational Employer

(English) Published by Baker and McKenzie. Three pillars for companies to consider when sending employees abroad.

Duty of Care of the EU and its Member States Towards Their Personnel Deployed in International Missions

(English) Published by Andrea de Guttry. Examines the current interpretation of Duty of Care and the obligation to protect life. Defines the precise obligations of the EU and its member states as well as the potential consequences of not meeting Duty of Care requirements.

Duty to Protect Staff in Overseas Danger Zones like Egypt

(English) Published by White & Case. Working in a high-risk environments raises vital issues of security and health risk exposure.


Managing Duty of Care For Employee Wellbeing Within a Hybrid Workforce 

(English) Published by Affinity Health at Work and the International SOS Foundation. With the shift towards hybrid working, this first of its kind global research aims to understand the expectations and support requirements of employees by location, context and working pattern, and provide organisations with evidence from which to tailor their offering more effectively to employees, whatever their working pattern and location. An evidence-based-practice approach was taken to the research, which includes a review of existing academic literature, interviews with organisational stakeholders Capgemini, HSBC, Mott MacDonald, Sasol, Suncorp and a survey which generated 1000+ responses from 62 countries.

Chief Health Officer 2030: Addressing the Employee Health Needs of the Future

Featuring brand new research, this paper captures the current thinking surrounding the response to COVID-19 and how best to prepare for the long journey towards healthier employees and communities. 

The Psychological Impact of Remote Rotational Work

Focused specifically on Mental Health & the Remote Rotational Worker. This paper is aimed to help organisation/managers with greater insight into the impact on mental wellbeing, and provides a way forward with some of the strategies that can be implemented to protect the workforce.

Risks of the Road for the International Traveller

Every year, road crashes kill 1.35 million people, which equates to over 3,700 deaths every single day. A staggering 40% of road deaths are work related. On top of this, between 20 to 50 million people are injured each year. From using shared economy services to self-driving, as a passenger, pedestrian or cyclist, road dangers are universal, but can often be a gap in Duty of Care.

Repatriation of Mortal Remains.

(English) Published by ICHLC.  In this whitepaper, Patrick Deroose, RN, outlines “best practices” in this very unique space where he is considered a world subject matter expert. He has personally overseen thousands of RMR’s around the world over the last three decades. He has consolidated his lists in the text, in bullet points based, on personal experiences with meticulous detail while never omitting the welfare of the family of the deceased.

Keeping International Business Travellers Healthy, Happy and Engaged at Home and Away.

(English) Published by the Affinity Health at Work and the International SOS Foundation. Rachel Lewis, and her colleagues at Affinity Health have created an unprecedented academic overview of mental illness in this mobile workforce space by summarising the peer-reviewed literature, performing a survey of the “at-risk” population in multiple industry sectors, and conducting multiple interviews of relevant stakeholders that manage the business travellers.

Teleconsultation Services for the Mobile Workforce

(English) This paper provides multi-national organisations with insight into essential considerations when assessing a teleconsultation service. It is endorsed by the International Society for Telemedicine and eHealth and authored by Leading Legal Authority, Nathaniel Lacktman, Esq. and the International SOS Group Medical Director for Assistance, Dr Neil Nerwich.

Communicating Risks with a Global Workforce
(English) Published by Business Continuity Institute, in partnership with International SOS Foundation and Everbridge (2018). The  report demonstrates the value that travel risk management and, specifically, crisis communications can provide to the safety of the mobile workforce and protection of financial resources.  The report assesses the importance of travel risk management communication with regard to; crisis handling, management buy-in, cross-functional working, speed and accuracy, practiced preparedness and benefits.

Occupational Health: the Global Value and Evidence

(English) Published by Society of Occupational Medicine (SOM), International SOS Foundation and KU Leuven University (2018). This whitepaper discusses the value of Occupational Health (OH) from a global perspective and provides a synthesis of global evidence on the effectiveness of OH interventions and cost effectiveness.

Occupational Health & Safety and Workplace Wellness Reporting Guidelines for a Global Workforce: A Practical Guide for Internationally Operating Employers

(English) Published by Sancroft and The International SOS Foundation (2017). This guide aims to provide OH&S, sustainability and corporate reporting professionals with practical guidance on how to improve OH&S reporting and practice. It was informed by interviews with leading multinational organisations, alongside engagement with leaders in the field and analysis of publicly available information.

Sending workers abroad: A Scottish Perspective on the Employer’s Duties in Relation to Health, Safety and Security
Published by Burness Paul LLP and the International SOS Foundation (Nov 2016). This paper outlines the organisation’s responsibilities towards the health and safety of their mobile workforce, as well as preventive principles, including travel risk policies, risk assessments, training, tracking and communication.

Disability inclusive health, safety & security management: A vital part of Duty of Care
(English) Published by CBM, Philipp Burtzlaff, Tom van Herwijnen (2016). This briefing paper aims to encourage security managers and policy makers towards implementing disability inclusive safety and security protocols and standards as an integral part of Duty of Care within the humanitarian, development and private sector.

Travelling with a disability guideline
(English) Published by CBM (2021). The aim of this guideline is to raise awareness and help to better prepare for trips. The guideline also gives first-hand advice and best-practice recommendations from persons with a disability for persons with a disability when they face challenges during their trip.

Managing the Safety, Health and Security of Mobile Workers: An Occupational Safety and Health Practitioner’s Guide

(English) Published by IOSH and the International SOS Foundation. This work will help prepare the occupational safety and health practitioner to become part of a multidisciplinary team that manages work-related travel safety, health and security within an organisation.

Return on Prevention: Cost-benefit Analysis of Prevention Measures for Business Travellers and International Assignees Study

(English) This award-winning research shows the return on investment for travel health checks and malaria programmes.

Socio-Economic Costs of Accidents at Work and Work-Related Ill Health

(English) Published by benOSH. Project aimed at evaluating the costs of accidents at work, work-related ill health and demonstrating the benefit to enterprises if they develop an effective prevention policy in occupational safety and health.

Global Health and Safety Initiatives

(English) Published by White & Case. Global risks like pandemics and crises (terrorism, natural disasters) can make cross-border health and safety initiatives a business imperative. But multinationals’ efforts to launch these programmes can face issues because countries regulate workplace health and safety at the local level.

2011 Duty of Care and Travel Risk Management Benchmarking Study (Global)

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. This Benchmarking Study allows organisations around the world to compare their Duty of Care policies with others and develop best practices to protect and support the global mobility of their employees and dependants.

Duty of Care regional studies are also available:

2013 Global Framework: Safety, Health and Security for Work-Related International Travel and Assignments
(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. This strategic framework guides the organisation in identifying threats and hazards, and managing risks to the safety, health and security of those travelling for their work or on international assignment.

Also available in German and French.

Global Workplace Health and Safety Compliance: From the “Micro” (Protecting the Individual Traveller) to the “Macro” (Protecting the International Workforce)
(English) Published by White & Case. Part 1 of the article discusses multinationals’ duty to protect individual employees overseas, in danger zones and otherwise, and Part 2 addresses cross-border workplace health and safety initiatives, like global cardinal safety rules and global pandemic plans launched across a multinational’s workforces worldwide.

Talent Mobility 2020: The Next Generation of International Assignments

(English) Published by PricewaterhouseCoopers. Explores the issue of future talent mobility in detail.

Psychological Impacts of International Business Travel

New whitepaper on the psychological impacts of business travel, 'Keeping Business Travellers Happy, Healthy & Engaged, at Home and Away'.  The paper includes a ground breaking study of how business travel impacts travelling executives, carried out by an independent team of Occupational Psychologists at Kingston Business School (part of Kingston University, UK) and Affinity Health at Work, commissioned by International SOS Foundation.