International Resources

Guidance Notes

International Minimum Requirements for Health Protection in the Workplace

(English) Published by World Health Organisation (WHO)

New Voluntary Guidelines on the Duty of Care to Seconded Civilian Personnel

Author:  Maarten Merkelbach.  Published by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, the UK Government's Stabilisation Unit (SU)  and Centre for International Peace Operations (ZIF) of the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. Report on the second international forum on Duty of Care. 

The Responsibility of Duty of Care for People Travelling Away From Home

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. Guidance for business travellers.

Obligations and Rights of Passengers and Air Companies

(English) Published by the IATA. Provides information on the requirements of airlines for the health and safety of passengers. 

Safety Without Borders: Keeping Your Staff Healthy and Safe Abroad

(English) Published by IOSH. This guide helps companies manage the health, safety and welfare issues their staff may face when posted abroad or whilst travelling on business trips.

Legislative Notes

Are you Part of the Global Workforce?

(English) Published by LexisNexis. An examination of the Duty of Care to business travellers and international assignees under the ILO's occupational health and safety convention and as emerging international customary law.

Can you Get Sued?

(English) Published by Kemp and Merkelbach.  Defines the legal liabilities that international humanitarian aid organisations have towards their staff.

Employees in Harm’s Way: Practical Considerations for the Multinational Employer

(English) Published by Baker and McKenzie. Three pillars for companies to consider when sending employees abroad.

Duty of Care of the EU and its Member States Towards Their Personnel Deployed in International Missions

(English) Published by Andrea de Guttry. Examines the current interpretation of Duty of Care and the obligation to protect life. Defines the precise obligations of the EU and its member states as well as the potential consequences of not meeting Duty of Care requirements.

Duty to Protect Staff in Overseas Danger Zones like Egypt

(English) Published by White & Case. Working in a high-risk environments raises vital issues of security and health risk exposure.


Global Practitioner Handbook Volume 1

(English)  Published by Global Immersion Press.  Global employer duty of care.  Protecting the Health, Safety, Security and Well-Being of Employees crossing borders.


Occupational Health & Safety and Workplace Wellness Reporting Guidelines for a Global Workforce: A Practical Guide for Internationally Operating Employers

(English) Published by Sancroft and The International SOS Foundation (2017). This guide aims to provide OH&S, sustainability and corporate reporting professionals with practical guidance on how to improve OH&S reporting and practice. It was informed by interviews with leading multinational organisations, alongside engagement with leaders in the field and analysis of publicly available information.


Investing and Operating in Russia: Mitigate Occupational Health Risks and Meet Regulatory Compliance

(English) Published by Enhesa and International SOS (2017). This whitepaper addresses the most complex and contradictory legal requirements pertaining to occupational health and safety, harm prevention, current common law practices and guidance on the problems employers face in the field of occupational health.

Sending workers abroad: A Scottish Perspective on the Employer’s Duties in Relation to Health, Safety and Security

Published by Burness Paul LLP and the International SOS Foundation (Nov 2016). This paper outlines the organisation’s responsibilities towards the health and safety of their mobile workforce, as well as preventive principles, including travel risk policies, risk assessments, training, tracking and communication. 

Disability inclusive health, safety & security management: A vital part of Duty of Care

(English) Published by CBM, Philipp Burtzlaff, Tom van Herwijnen (2016). This briefing paper aims to encourage security managers and policy makers towards implementing disability inclusive safety and security protocols and standards as an integral part of Duty of Care within the humanitarian, development and private sector.


Travelling with a disability guideline

(English) Published by CBM (2016). The aim of this guideline is to raise awareness and help to better prepare for trips. The guideline also gives first-hand advice and best-practice recommendations from persons with a disability for persons with a disability when they face challenges during their trip.


Managing the Safety, Health and Security of Mobile Workers: An Occupational Safety and Health Practitioner’s Guide

(English) Published by IOSH and the International SOS Foundation. This work will help prepare the occupational safety and health practitioner to become part of a multidisciplinary team that manages work-related travel safety, health and security within an organisation.


Return on Prevention: Cost-benefit Analysis of Prevention Measures for Business Travellers and International Assignees Study

(English) This award-winning research shows the return on investment for travel health checks and malaria programmes.


Socio-Economic Costs of Accidents at Work and Work-Related Ill Health

(English) Published by benOSH. Project aimed at evaluating the costs of accidents at work, work-related ill health and demonstrating the benefit to enterprises if they develop an effective prevention policy in occupational safety and health.


Global Health and Safety Initiatives

(English) Published by White & Case. Global risks like pandemics and crises (terrorism, natural disasters) can make cross-border health and safety initiatives a business imperative. But multinationals’ efforts to launch these programmes can face issues because countries regulate workplace health and safety at the local level.


2011 Duty of Care and Travel Risk Management Benchmarking Study (Global)

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. This Benchmarking Study allows organisations around the world to compare their Duty of Care policies with others and develop best practices to protect and support the global mobility of their employees and dependants.

Duty of Care regional studies are also available:


2013 Global Framework: Safety, Health and Security for Work-Related International Travel and Assignments

(English) Published by the International SOS Foundation. This strategic framework guides the organisation in identifying threats and hazards, and managing risks to the safety, health and security of those travelling for their work or on international assignment.

Also available in German and French.


Global Workplace Health and Safety Compliance: From the “Micro” (Protecting the Individual Traveller) to the “Macro” (Protecting the International Workforce)

(English) Published by White & Case. Part 1 of the article discusses multinationals’ duty to protect individual employees overseas, in danger zones and otherwise, and Part 2 addresses cross-border workplace health and safety initiatives, like global cardinal safety rules and global pandemic plans launched across a multinational’s workforces worldwide.


Talent Mobility 2020: The Next Generation of International Assignments

(English) Published by PricewaterhouseCoopers. Explores the issue of future talent mobility in detail.